On June 30, 2013, millions of Egyptians took to the street to demand the resignation of President Muhammad Morsi in what organizers called the "Tamarod," or rebellion. The military responded by issuing an ultimatum that the president step down within forty-eight hours. By July 2, the Morsi era was over, putting an end to an administration dominated by his Freedom and Justice Party, a political offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood.
In this five-minute video, Washington Institute executive director Robert Satloff and Next Generation fellow Eric Trager address five key questions about the Tamarod upheaval: Why did the protests erupt? Was it a coup? Should U.S. aid continue? How should the U.S. respond? Is civil war inevitable?